Cultural Encounters — A Journal for the Theology of Culture (ISSN: 1550-4891) is a publication of the Institute for the Theology of Culture: New Wine, New Wineskins. The Institute is an official program of Multnomah University, Dr. G. Craig Williford, President.

In the tradition of the Institute for the Theology of Culture: New Wine, New Wineskins, the journal will seek to bring Christ to bear on contemporary culture in an academically rigorous manner. Our desire is to foster discussion on a variety of issues. Therefore, the articles and opinions expressed therein do not necessarily reflect the views of the Institute for the Theology of Culture: New Wine, New Wineskins; Multnomah University and Biblical Seminary; or any editor associated with Cultural Encounters.

Cultural Encounters is published exclusively online, though printed copies are available for Volume 1 – 8.

Purpose of Journal

Cultural Encounters — A Journal for the Theology of Culture is committed to pursuing a biblically informed, Christ-centered, trinitarian engagement of contemporary culture.

The journal has a two-fold aim in engaging contemporary culture: 1) to be biblically informed and 2) to have a Christ-centered trinitarian focus.

First, the journal is to be biblically informed. We are confident that the triune God is the ultimate communicator and that Scripture provides the basis for engaging contemporary culture in all its beauty and brokenness—constructively, critically and creatively.

Second, Scripture bears witness to the triune God’s creation and redemption of this world, including culture, through Christ’s incarnational and reconciling activity in history by the Spirit.

Thus, the journal will seek to focus on Scripture’s disclosure of God’s activity in history, and how it informs our engagement of culture in its various contemporary manifestations. The editorial team values this two-fold aim and will consider articles for publication on the same basis. For more on our purpose, take a look at a Message from the Editor.

Journal Staff


Paul Louis Metzger, Multnomah Biblical Seminary

Book Review Editor

Brad Harper, Multnomah Bible College

Journal Coordinator

Beyth Hogue Greenetz

Editorial Board

(Faculty of Multnomah University)
Albert H. Baylis, Brad Harper, Paul Louis Metzger, Jon Robertson

Associate Editors

(Associates of Multnomah University)
Valerie A. Clemen, Karl Kutz, Ray Lubeck, Steven Mitchell, Domani Pothen,
Daniel Scalberg, Douglas Schaak, John L. Terveen

Production/Submissions/Copy Editor

Mariko Metzger

Copy Editor

Craig Mather

Assistant Acquisitions Editor

Carolyn Kaleel

Editorial Assistants

Carolyn Kaleel

Lynette Sanchez

Distributing Affiliate

IngentaConnect of Publishing Technology


Web – Weston Ruter

Contributing Editors

Ray Aldred
My People International
Winnipeg, MB Canada

Vincent Bacote
Wheaton College
Wheaton, IL

Clifford Blake Anderson
Vanderbilt University
Nashville, TN

Daniel W. Brown
Smith College
Northampton, MA

Linda L. Belleville
Bethel College
Mishawaka, IN

Kimlyn Bender
George W. Truett Theological Seminary, Baylor University
Waco, TX

Peter J. Casarella
University of Notre Dame
Notre Dame, IN

Peter T. Cha
Trinity Evangelical Divinity School
Deerfield, IL

J. Daryl Charles
Berry College
Mt. Berry, GA

Roland Chia
Trinity Theological College

Gary W. Deddo
InterVarsity Press
Westmont, IL

Eric Flett
Eastern University
St. Davids, PA

Randall Y. Furushima
New Hope Christian College
Honolulu, HI

LeRoy Haynes, Jr.
North Portland Bible College
Portland, OR

Matt Jenson
Biola University
La Mirada, CA

Robert K. Johnston
Fuller Theological Seminary
Pasadena, CA

Kelly M. Kapic
Covenant College
Lookout Mountain, GA

Samuel W. Kunhiyop
South African Theological Seminary
Jos, Nigeria

Terry LeBlanc
North American Institute for Indigenous Theological Studies
Evansburg, AB Canada

Grant Macaskill
University of St. Andrews
St. Andrews, Scotland

Paul D. Molnar
St. John’s University
Jamaica, NY

Harold A. Netland
Trinity Evangelical Divinity School
Deerfield, IL

Robin Parry
Wipf & Stock Publishers
Worcester, England

Soong-Chan Rah
North Park Theological Seminary
Chicago, IL

Peter M. B. Robinson
Wycliffe College
Toronto, ON Canada

Tiffany C. Robinson
Wycliffe College
Toronto, ON Canada

Fred Sanders
Biola University
La Mirada, CA

R. Larry Shelton
George Fox Evangelical Seminary
Portland, OR

Daniel A. Siedell
The King’s College
New York, NY

R. Kendall Soulen
Wesley Theological Seminary
Washington, DC

William F. Storrar
Center of Theological Inquiry
Princeton, NJ

Richard L. White
Portland State University
Portland, OR